This chapter has outlined our current understanding of the regulation of p70S6K activity and its importance for cell growth and proliferation. Although incomplete at the moment, the picture of P70S6K activation reveals novel mechanisms for mitogenic signalling that closely link lipid phosphorylation and protein activation in ways previously unrecognized. Knowledge about the regulation of this signalling pathway is already proving crucial for the medical management of patients. The p70S6K regulating pathways appear to be involved in cell transformation by the polyomavirus. Rapamycin is a strong candidate for use as an immunosuppressant and is currently being tested in clinical trials. Analysis of the activation of the proto-oncogene, akt, demonstrates a possible link of the p70S6K activating pathway to carcinogenesis. Equally exciting is the recent connection between the p70S6K regulating system and IGF2 expression, which may prove crucial for the treatment of IGF2 secreting rhabdomyosarcomas. Certainly, future work will fill in the gaps in our understanding and most likely provide more surprises in the fields of cell biology and molecular oncology.