The document Antibiotic Resistance in Spain: What Can Be Done? was prepared in 1994 by an ad hoc Task Force under the auspices of the Spanish Ministry of Health. The problem of the development of antibiotic resistance in community-acquired bacterial pathogens in Spain and its relation to antibiotic use and consumption has been of both national and international concern. This document analyzes the problem and provides general recommendations for limiting the emergence, evolution, and spread of resistant microorganisms. Particular emphasis is given to systems for surveillance of antibiotic resistance, the monitoring of patterns of antibiotic use and consumption, and strategies for influencing the producers (pharmaceutical industry), prescribers (physicians and veterinarians), dispensers (pharmacists), and consumers (patients) of antibiotics. Control of the emergence of antibiotic resistance requires a concerted effort on the part of all social and scientific agencies involved in health care.