Association of trans fatty acids (vegetable ghee) and clarified butter (Indian ghee) intake with higher risk of coronary artery disease in rural and urban populations with low fat consumption

Int J Cardiol. 1996 Oct 25;56(3):289-98; discussion 299-300. doi: 10.1016/0167-5273(96)02760-x.


These cross-sectional surveys included 1769 rural (894 men and 875 women) and 1806 urban (904 men and 902 women) randomly selected subjects between 25-64 years of age from Moradabad in North India. The total prevalence of coronary artery disease based on clinical history and electrocardiogram was significantly higher in urban compared to rural men (11.0 vs. 3.9%) and women (6.9 vs. 2.6%), respectively. Food consumption patterns showed that important differences in relation to coronary artery disease were higher intake of total visible fat, milk and milk products, meat, eggs, sugar and jaggery in urban compared to rural subjects. Prevalence of coronary artery disease in relation to visible fat intake showed a higher prevalence rate with higher visible fat intake in both sexes and the trend was significant for total prevalence rates both for rural and urban men and women. Subgroup analysis among urban (694 men and 694 women) and rural (442 men and 435 women) subjects consuming moderate to high fat diets showed that subjects eating trans fatty acids plus clarified butter or those consuming clarified butter as total visible fat had a significantly higher prevalence of coronary artery disease compared to those consuming clarified butter plus vegetable oils in both rural (9.8, 7.1 vs. 3.0%) and urban (16.2, 13.5 vs. 11.0%) men as well as in rural (9.2, 4.5 vs. 1.5%) and urban (10.7, 8.8 vs. 6.4%) women. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis with adjustment for age showed that sedentariness in women, body mass index in urban men and women, milk and clarified butter plus trans fatty acids in both rural and urban in both sexes were significantly associated with coronary artery disease. It is possible that lower intake of total visible fat (20 g/day), decreased intake of milk, increased physical activity and cessation of smoking may benefit some populations in the prevention of coronary artery disease.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Butter
  • Coronary Disease / epidemiology*
  • Coronary Disease / prevention & control
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet, Fat-Restricted
  • Dietary Fats / adverse effects*
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Odds Ratio
  • Plant Oils
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Rural Population*
  • Urban Population*


  • Dietary Fats
  • Plant Oils
  • Butter