Diagnosis and management of malignant germ cell ovarian tumors in young females

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1996 Oct;55(1):1-10. doi: 10.1016/0020-7292(96)02719-1.


Germ cell tumors (GCT) compose most of the preadolescent malignant ovarian tumors; dysgerminoma being the most common (48%), followed by endodermal sinus tumor, immature teratoma, mixed GCT and embryonal carcinoma. The percentage of malignant epithelial ovarian tumors rises with increasing age, while that of the GCT tumors declines. Of all tumor markers discussed, only AFP and hCG are being routinely monitored. Their most effective use is in monitoring response to therapy and detecting recurrences early. The current therapeutic regimens are presented, among them bleomycin, etoposide and platinol (BEP) and other new regimens; their influence on the patients' fertility is discussed. Further improvement in the prognosis of these young patients will hopefully follow development of new surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Child
  • Female
  • Germinoma* / diagnosis
  • Germinoma* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Ovarian Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Ovarian Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Prognosis


  • Biomarkers, Tumor