Purpose: We gained knowledge of the etiology, treatment and prevention of cyclophosphamide associated urothelial cancer.
Materials and methods: The medical records of 6 men and 6 women (mean age 55 years) with cyclophosphamide associated bladder cancer were reviewed.
Results: All tumors were grade 3 or 4 transitional cell carcinoma. Of the 5 patients initially treated with endoscopic resection alone only 1 is alive without disease. Of the 6 patients who underwent early cystectomy 4 were alive at 24 to 111 months. The remaining patient with extensive cancer underwent partial cystectomy for palliation and died 3 months later.
Conclusions: Cyclophosphamide associated bladder tumor is an aggressive disease. However, long-term survival is possible when radical cystectomy is performed for bladder tumors with any sign of invasion and for recurrent high grade disease, even when noninvasive.