Spectrally silent transitions in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle

Biophys J. 1996 Nov;71(5):2329-45. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3495(96)79475-4.


The photocycle kinetics of bacteriorhodopsin were analyzed from 0 to 40 degrees C at 101 wavelengths (330-730 nm). The data can be satisfactorily approximated by eight exponents. The slowest component (half-time 20 ms at 20 degrees C) belongs to the 13-cis cycle. The residual seven exponentials that are sufficient to describe the all-trans photocycle indicate that at least seven intermediates of the all-trans cycle must exist, although only five spectrally distinct species (K, L, M, N, and O) have been identified. These seven exponentials and their spectra at different temperatures provide the basis for the discussion of various kinetic schemes of the relaxation. The simplest model of irreversible sequential transitions includes after the first K--> L step the quasiequilibria of L<-->M, M<-->N, and N<-->O intermediates. These quasiequilibria are controlled by rate-limiting dynamics of the protein and/or proton transfer steps outside the chromophore region. Thus there exists an apparent kinetic paradox (i.e., why is the number of exponents of relaxation (at least seven) higher than the number of distinct spectral intermediates (only five)), which can be explained by assuming that some of the transitions correspond to changes in the quasiequilibria between spectrally distinct intermediates (i.e., are spectrally silent).

MeSH terms

  • Bacteriorhodopsins / chemistry*
  • Halobacterium / chemistry
  • Kinetics
  • Models, Biological
  • Photosynthesis*
  • Spectrum Analysis
  • Temperature


  • Bacteriorhodopsins