Japanese patients with peroxisomal disorders in the pediatric field were screened. Very long chain fatty acid analysis in the serum sphingomyelin was introduced since 1987 and was useful for the first screening of peroxisomal disorders. Seventy-five patients were diagnosed since 1980: 15 patients with Zellweger syndrome, 2 with neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), 1 with rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, 1 with Zellweger-like syndrome. 2 with acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency, 2 with bifunctional enzyme deficiency and 52 with X-linked ALD. The incidence of peroxisome-deficient disorders was estimated to be approximately 1 in 800,000 births which is far less than that in the USA. However, the incidence in Okinawa Islands was 1 in 30,000. Japanese Zellweger patients belonged to 5 complementation groups (A, B, C, E, F) and the patients in Okinawa Islands belonged to groups A and C. The results of this screening were useful for genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, carrier detection and early medical care of patients with peroxisomal disorders.