A rare monosomy 1p36.31-33-->pter was found in a child with physical anomalies, psycho-motor retardation, and seizures. Cytogenetic investigation suggested an unbalanced translocation between 1p and an acrocentric chromosome, but the rearrangement was difficult to assess accurately using conventional chromosome banding techniques. The half-cryptic translocation was further characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the aberrant chromosome 1 was shown to be a derivate of a paternal reciprocal translocation t(1;15) (p36.31-33;p11.2-12). The breakpoints on chromosome 1 and 15 were defined in detail using locus specific probes. The rearrangement did not include the region on chromosome 1p which previously has been suggested to predispose to the development of neuroblastoma in a case with a constitutional translocation. At 3 6/12 years, the patient has no clinical signs of this disease, which illustrates the prognostic significance of this investigation.