SSM4 was isolated as a suppressor of rna14-1, a mutant involved in nuclear mRNA maturation. In order to isolate genes interacting with SSM4, we have searched for mutants that are syntheticlethal in association with an SSM4 deletion. Among the mutants obtained, one, named sls1-1, shows a pet- phenotype. We have cloned and sequenced this gene. It encodes a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 73 kDa. This protein contains a mitochondrial targeting presequence but does not show homology with other known proteins. Deletion of SLS1 does not affect cell viability on glucose but is lethal on a non-fermentable medium. The Sls1p protein does not appear to be involved in mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription, or in RNA splicing maturation or stability. We have also tagged this protein and localized it in mitochondria. Treatment with alkaline carbonate does not extract this protein from mitochondria, suggesting strongly that it is a mitochondrial integral membrane protein. Thus, the SLS1 gene, encodes a mitochondrial integral membrane protein and is paradoxically synlethal in association with a deletion of the SSM4 gene, which encodes an integral nuclear membrane protein.