Improved Carbohydrate Metabolism After Physical Training and Dietary Intervention in Individuals With the "Atherothrombogenic Syndrome'. Oslo Diet and Exercise Study (ODES). A Randomized Trial

J Intern Med. 1996 Oct;240(4):203-9. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2796.1996.22848000.x.

Abstract

Objectives: To compare the single and joint effect of 1-year diet and exercise intervention on carbohydrate metabolism and associated coronary risk variables.

Design: Unmasked, randomized, 2 x 2 factorial intervention trial with 1-year duration for each participant.

Setting: The participants were recruited from a screening examination of 40-year-old persons in Oslo, Norway.

Subjects: Two hundred and nineteen sedentary men and women, with diastolic blood pressure 86-99 mmHg, HDL cholesterol < 1.20 mmol L-1, triglycerides > 1.4 mmol L-1, total cholesterol 5.20-7.74 mmol L-1 and BMI > 24. Participants were randomly allocated to control (n = 43), diet (n = 55), exercise (n = 54) and diet+exercise (n = 67).

Interventions: Exercise: supervised endurance exercise three times a week. Diet: reduce weight, increase the intake of fish and reduce total fat intake.

Main outcome measures: One-year changes in insulin and glucose before and after a standardized glucose load.

Results: As compared with controls fasting insulin in pmol L-1 decreased significantly in the combined diet and exercise group (3.9 +/- 6.2 versus -22.6 +/- 4.7 respectively, P = 0.003). Insulin in pmol L-1 after glucose load decreased significantly in all intervention groups compared to controls (diet: -82.2 +/- 49.9 P = 0.02; exercise: -92.4 +/- 60.1 P = 0.03; diet + exercise: -179.6 +/- 46.1 P = 0.0004). Fasting glucose in mmol L-1 decreased significantly in the diet alone group (0.21 +/- 0.07 P = 0.006) and in the diet+exercise group (-0.26 +/- 0.08 P = 0.005). In a subgroup analysis of the good responders, the observed changes with respect to total cholesterol (-0.76 mmol L-1), HDL cholesterol (0.16 mmol L-1), triglycerides (-0.72 mmol L-1), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (-8.5/ -6.8 mmHg) were all statistically significant compared to the control with P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Exercise and diet intervention and in particular the combination of the two, were effective in improving carbohydrate metabolism. Associated risk factors were also affected in a beneficial direction.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Coagulation
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Mass Index
  • Diet, Reducing*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Exercise*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood*
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Norway

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Fats
  • Insulin
  • Lipids