The Perception of Procedures Questionnaire: psychometric properties of a brief parent report measure of procedural distress

J Pediatr Psychol. 1996 Apr;21(2):195-207. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/21.2.195.


Reported the reliability and validity of the Perception of Procedures Questionnaire (PPQ), a 19-item parent-report measure developed to assess child and parent distress related to lumbar punctures and bone marrow aspirates in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancer. PPQ data from 140 mothers and 96 fathers of children and adolescents with leukemia in a first remission were analyzed separately. Factor analyses yielded five factors for mothers and fathers: Parent Satisfaction; Child Distress: During; Child Distress: Before; Parent Distress; and Parent Involvement. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was high for the total score and the five factor scores as were interrater reliabilities between mothers and fathers. Validity was determined using the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, the Pediatric Oncology Quality of Life Scale, and parent and nurse ratings during procedures. Factors 2 and 3, assessing child distress, show strong associations with the validation measures and support the distinction between distress before and during procedures. This developing scale is recommended for use in the assessment and evaluation of child and parent procedure-related distress in pediatric oncology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Bone Marrow Examination / psychology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Leukemia / diagnosis*
  • Leukemia / psychology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parents*
  • Psychometrics*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Spinal Puncture / psychology*
  • Stress, Psychological*