Separation and comorbidity of hyperactivity and conduct disturbance in Chinese schoolboys

J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1996 Oct;37(7):841-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1996.tb01480.x.


In a two-stage community study of 3069 Chinese schoolboys in Hong Kong, those entering stage 2 were classified by scores on Rutter's teacher and parent questionnaires into: (1) a mixed hyperactive/conduct-disturbed (HA-CD) group; (2) a pure hyperactive (HA) group; (3) a pure conduct-disturbed (CD) group; and (4) a normal control group. The four groups of children were compared on a series of psychosocial, cognitive and neurodevelopmental measures. This was followed by a regression analysis to examine the specificity of the differential patterns of associations between HA and CD. There was a mix of negative and positive findings defying a simple, definitive conclusion. However, the positive findings that did emerge supported a growing body of recent literature which favoured a separation of HA from CD and their cross-cultural validity: the former was associated with neurodevelopmental impairments, the latter with family disharmony. The mixed condition, HA-CD, was a hybrid of its two constituent conditions, displaying the attributes of both.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Achievement
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Child
  • Child Behavior Disorders / diagnosis
  • Child Behavior Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Cognition Disorders / complications
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Developmental Disabilities / complications
  • Family Health
  • Hong Kong / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hyperkinesis / diagnosis
  • Hyperkinesis / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Psychological Tests
  • Regression Analysis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Stress, Psychological / complications