Renal crisis occurs in systemic sclerosis patients with rapidly progressive diffuse cutaneous thickening early in their disease. SRC is characterized by malignant hypertension, hyperreninemia, azotemia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and renal failure. This complication, which in the past has been almost uniformly fatal, is now successfully treated in most cases with ACE inhibitors. This therapy has improved survival, reduced requirement for dialysis, and in those on dialysis has often allowed discontinuation of this procedure 6 to 18 months later. Prompt diagnosis and early, aggressive initiation of therapy with ACE inhibitors will result in the most optimal outcome. Chronic nonrenal crisis renal insufficiency is unusual and rarely progresses to significant renal dysfunction.