Activation and inactivation of carcinogenic dihaloalkanes and other compounds by glutathione S-transferase 5-5 in Salmonella typhimurium tester strain NM5004

Chem Res Toxicol. 1996 Jan-Feb;9(1):333-40. doi: 10.1021/tx950125v.


A newly developed tester Salmonella typhimurium NM5004 strain was constructed by introducing a plasmid containing both rat GSH S-transferase (GST) 5-5 cDNA and the umuC"lacZ operon into the host strain Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and used to examine whether or not GST modified the genotoxic activities of several dihaloalkanes and other compounds. Twenty-nine chemicals that were suggested to be conjugated by GST were compared with regard to their abilities to induce umu gene expression and cause cytotoxicity responses in both the NM5004 strain and the original tester strain (S. typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002, which is devoid of GST activity toward 1,2-epoxy-3-(4'-nitrophenoxy)propane). Ten chemicals--1,2-dibromoethane,N-(2,3-epoxypropyl)phthalimide, 1,3-dichloroacetone, CH2I2, 1,2-epoxy-3-phenoxypropane, 2,3-epoxypropyl p-methoxyphenyl ether, 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1-bromo-2,3-dichloropropane, CH2BrCl, and CH2Br2--were found to enhance induction of umu gene expression in the NM5004 strain as compared with the TA1535/pSK1002 strain. 1,2-Epoxy-3-(4'-nitrophenoxy)propane and 2,3-dibromo-1-chloropropane were inactivated by GST 5-5 in the NM5004 tester strain, although these chemicals were cytotoxic in both tester strains. Roles of GST 5-5 were also examined for the inactivation of reactive metabolites of several procarcinogens that were formed through oxidation by liver microsomes of polychlorinated biphenyl-treated rats. The results suggest that reactive metabolites (possibly epoxides) of aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin, 1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxy-6-aminochrysene, and (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of 7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene could be trapped as inactivated GSH conjugates in the NM5004 strain. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis suggested that exo-aflatoxin B1-8,9-oxide--GSH conjugate was formed during the oxidation of aflatoxin B1 by rat and human liver microsomes in the presence of GSH and several GST enzymes including purified rat theta class GST Yrs-Yrs and rat liver GST (a mixture of alpha and mu class enzymes). Thus, the present results support the view that the theta class rat GST 5-5 enzyme participates in the activation and inactivation of potential environmental carcinogenic chemicals. This newly developed NM5004 tester strain is of use in the elucidation of roles of GST 5-5 in transformations.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aflatoxin B1 / metabolism
  • Alkanes / pharmacokinetics*
  • Animals
  • Biotransformation
  • Carcinogens / pharmacokinetics*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Glutathione Transferase / toxicity*
  • Hydrocarbons, Halogenated / pharmacokinetics*
  • Male
  • Microsomes, Liver / drug effects
  • Microsomes, Liver / enzymology
  • Microsomes, Liver / metabolism
  • Mutagenicity Tests
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Salmonella typhimurium / drug effects*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / genetics


  • Alkanes
  • Carcinogens
  • Hydrocarbons, Halogenated
  • Aflatoxin B1
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls
  • Glutathione Transferase