The present study evaluated the ability of the anti-GD2 ganglioside monoclonal antibody 3F8 to target tumor sites in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Of 12 patients entered into the trial, ten received intravenous 3F8 labeled with 2 or 10 mCi iodine-131. The first five patients had recurrent or progressive disease after chemotherapy. Subsequent patients were studied before starting chemotherapy. Radionuclide scans were performed on days 1, 2, and 3 post-infusion and once between day 5 and day 7. Four patients underwent single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. Radionuclide scans demonstrated localization to all known sites of disease, other than small brain metastases in one patient. SPET/CT scan fusion images confirmed precise localization. No significant toxicity was observed. Mean serum half-life was 64.2 h. Analysis of specimens from one patient who died of unrelated causes 6 days post-infusion confirmed the scan results. The present study demonstrates that 3F8 targets SCLC sites in patients. Further studies of anti-GD2 antibodies with higher doses of antibody and radionuclide are warranted to evaluate their role in SCLC.