The morbidity rate for retinopathy of unknown origin was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the chronic hepatitis C group, 27 (31.8%) of 85 cases, than in the control group, 6 (6.0%) of 100 cases. Among hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated retinopathy patients, 6 cases (22.2%) were aware of ocular subjective symptoms, retinopathy recurred in 8 (29.6%) cases, binocular retinopathy occurred in 14 (51.9%) cases, and retinopathy related to liver dysfunction, in 13 (81.3%) of 16 tested cases. HCV-associated retinopathy involved hemorrhage at the posterior pole retina in 21 (77.8%), cotton-wool patches in 9 (33.3%), and hemorrhage at the peripheral retina in 7 (25.9%) cases. Sequelae occurred in only one case. Retinopathy worsened or recurred in all 7 cases treated with interferon. The risk factors for HCV-associated retinopathy were mild thrombocytopenia (P < 0.001), long-term hepatitis illness (P < 0.005), advanced age (P < 0.02), concurrence with liver cirrhosis (P < 0.02), history of systemic hypertension (P < 0.05), and female gender (P < 0.05).