The use of vaginal ultrasound to identify copper T IUDs at high risk of expulsion

Contraception. 1996 Nov;54(5):287-9. doi: 10.1016/s0010-7824(96)00181-3.


A total of 235 women who had a TCu 380A IUD inserted had a vaginal ultrasound scan performed to identify if the IUDs were correctly placed in the uterine fundus. Women identified as having a misplaced IUD had it removed. The remaining women were compared to 201 women who had an IUD inserted and had no ultrasound evaluation, matched by age and parity. Women were followed-up for one year. Gross cumulative discontinuation rates and continuation rates were calculated by life table analysis. Comparison between groups was done by the Gehan test. The study group had 34 IUDs removed because they were misplaced according to the established criteria. The expulsion rate was significantly higher in the control group, also influencing the continuation rate which was lower in the same group. Of the 34 women who had their IUD removed because it was not correctly placed, only 22 requested and had another IUD inserted. The removal of IUD determined by an ultrasound to be incorrectly placed significantly decreased expulsion rates. However, many IUDs may have been removed unnecessarily, probably resulting in many women not returning to the clinic or deciding to use another contraceptive method.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Intrauterine Device Expulsion*
  • Intrauterine Devices, Copper* / statistics & numerical data
  • Life Tables*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Ultrasonography
  • Uterus / diagnostic imaging*
  • Uterus / physiology