Deep infection, the most serious local complication of total hip replacement, prompted a study of the records of 135 patients (137 hips) thus afflicted in a nationwide survey of Canada. Particular attention has been paid to the natural history of the infection, and the problems of diagnosis are described. Twenty-one patients died after the insertion, or removal, of the prosthesis, and of the survivors of the original 135 patients only eighteen have been able to retain the prosthesis without further problems with the wound. The remaining patients had the prosthesis removed, and most dry wounds. Certain suggestions are made on management. The advice that a second total hip prosthesis should be inserted after a deep infection of the first implant is not supported.