Objective: Determine calcium (Ca) absorption from Ca fortified orange and apple juice.
Methods: Absorbability was assessed by measuring 45Ca absorption in healthy women (mean age 57 years, n = 57/group) and whole body 47Ca retention in adult female beagle dogs (n = 6/group) and young adult male rats (n = 6/group). Women received 6.24 mmol (250 mg) Ca as calcium citrate malate fortified orange juice (CCM-OJ) or apple juice (CCM-AJ). Dogs received 3.12 mmol (125 mg) Ca as CCM-OJ or CCM-AJ. Rats were administered 0.15 mmol (6 mg) Ca as either milk, CCM-OJ, or CCM-AJ. Additional 47Ca whole body retention experiments in rats measured the effects of differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of the juices on Ca absorption.
Results: Mean +/- SEM percent Ca fractional absorption was greater (p < 0.003) in women who consumed CCM-AJ (42 +/- 2%) than those who consumed CCM-OJ (36 +/- 1%). Ca retention in dogs was 15 +/- 1% for CCM-OJ and 29 +/- 2% for CCM-AJ (p < 0.001). Ca retention was significantly different (p < 0.05) in rats administered milk (42 +/- 2%), CCM-OJ (52 +/- 2%), or CCM-AJ (61 +/- 2%). By manipulating the carbohydrate and organic acid concentrations of test solutions to mimic the composition of Ca fortified juices, we found that the greater fructose and lower organic acid content of apple juice accounted for its greater Ca absorbability.
Conclusions: CCM fortified versions of orange and apple juice have high Ca absorbability and are potentially important vehicles for increasing dietary Ca intake. The greater Ca absorption from CCM-AJ compared with CCM-OJ is accounted for by differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of the juices. These data suggest that by modifying common beverage ingredients, products with even greater Ca absorbability could be formulated.