Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is widely used in domiciliary treatment of chronic ventilatory disorders. The outcomes of long-term NIPPV were analyzed in 41 patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure due to pulmonary tuberculosis sequelae (PTS; n = 17), neuromuscular disease (NMD; n = 8), kyphoscoliosis (KS; n = 7), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 6), and miscellaneous diseases (n = 3). Twenty-seven patients with chronic conditions but without acute exacerbations began receiving NIPPV, and fourteen patients began receiving NIPPV after an acute exacerbation. Outcome measures included the probability of continuing NIPPV, survival after starting NIPPV, survival after starting home oxygen therapy (HOT), arterial blood gases, nocturnal oxygen saturation, pulmonary function, and the number of hospital days. Two patients with PTS died, 7 and 40 months after starting NIPPV. Two patients (one with PTS and one with COPD) switched from NIPPV to intermittent positive pressure ventilation via a tracheostomy. The condition of one patient with NMD improved and NIPPV was discontinued. The three-year and five-year probabilities of continuing NIPPV in all patients were 82%, and 71%, respectively. The survival rates three and five years after starting NIPPV were 97% and 85%, respectively. The survival rates one to nine years, and ten to eleven years after starting HOT were 98% and 65%, respectively. The arterial PO2 and PCO2, nocturnal oxygen saturation, vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume, in one second all improved after NIPPV was begun. NIPPV also reduced the number of hospital days, particularly in patients with KS. In conclusion, the long-term outcome of NIPPV in patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure is encouraging.