Olfactory learning deficits in mutants for leonardo, a Drosophila gene encoding a 14-3-3 protein

Neuron. 1996 Nov;17(5):931-44. doi: 10.1016/s0896-6273(00)80224-x.


Studies of Drosophila and other insects have indicated an essential role for the mushroom bodies in learning and memory. The leonardo gene encodes a Drosophila protein highly homologous to the vertebrate 14-3-3zeta isoform, a protein well studied for biochemical roles but without a well established biological function. The gene is expressed abundantly and preferentially in mushroom body neurons. Mutant alleles that reduce LEONARDO protein levels in the mushroom bodies significantly decrease the capacity for olfactory learning, but do not affect sensory modalities or brain neuroanatomy that are requisite for conditioning. These results establish a biological role for 14-3-3 proteins in mushroom body-mediated learning and memory processes, and suggest that proteins known to interact with them, such as RAF-1 or other protein kinases, may also have this biological function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Alleles
  • Animals
  • Association Learning / physiology*
  • Conditioning, Psychological / physiology
  • Drosophila
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic / physiology
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression / physiology
  • Genes, Insect / physiology
  • Isomerism
  • Male
  • Mutagenesis / physiology
  • Mutation / physiology
  • Neurons / physiology
  • Proteins / chemistry
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Smell / genetics*
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase*


  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Proteins
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase