Integrins are heterodimeric integral plasma membrane proteins containing extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains. These highly versatile receptors mediate not only cell adhesion and migration, but also the bidirectional transfer of information across the plasma membrane. The cytoplasmic domains of integrins are required for the transduction of this bidirectional information, and have recently been shown to participate in direct interactions with some novel cytoplasmic proteins, such as an ankyrin repeat containing serine/threonine protein kinase (integrin-linked kinase) and beta3 endonexin. New evidence also suggests that, via interactions with focal adhesion kinase, the integrin cytoplasmic domains can coordinate actin cytoskeletal organization and responses to growth factors. The elucidation of the signal transduction pathways activated by integrins is an intense area of investigation that has shown that integrins have some unique properties as signal transducing receptors.