Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a methyl donor in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Patients with severe MTHFR deficiency have hyperhomocysteinemia, hypomethioninemia, and a range of neurological and vascular findings with a variable age at onset. We have previously described nine mutations in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. A mild form of MTHFR deficiency, associated with a thermolabile enzyme, has been proposed as a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease and for neural tube defects. We have shown that a common missense mutation (an alanine-to-valine substitution) encodes this thermolabile variant. We now report an additional five mutations causing severe MTHFR deficiency and an analysis of genotype (alanine/valine status) and enzyme thermolability in 22 patients with this inborn error of metabolism. Six of these patients have four mutations in the MTHFR gene-two rare mutations causing severe deficiency and two mutations for the common alanine-to-valine mutation that results in thermolability. Even in severe MTHFR deficiency, the thermolabile variant is frequently observed, and there is a strong relationship between the presence of this variant and increased enzyme thermolability.