Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secreted from the hypothalamus is the major regulator of pituitary ACTH release and consequent glucocorticoid secretion. CRH secreted in the periphery also acts as a proinflammatory modulator. CRH receptors (CRH-R1, R2alpha, R2beta) exhibit a specific tissue distribution. Antalarmin, a novel pyrrolopyrimidine compound, displaced 12SI-oCRH binding in rat pituitary, frontal cortex and cerebellum, but not heart, consistent with antagonism at the CRHR1 receptor. In vivo antalarmnin (20 mg/kg body wt.) significantly inhibited CRH-stimulated ACTH release and carageenin-induced subcutaneous inflammation in rats. Antalarmin, or its analogs, hold therapeutic promise in disorders with putative CRH hypersecretion, such as melancholic depression and inflammatory disorders.