Background: The relationship between serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-3 and recurrence in patients with urothelial carcinoma after complete resection was studied to determine whether the enzymes could be a new predictor of recurrence.
Methods: Serum levels of MMP-2 and MMP-3 in 146 healthy controls, 52 patients with superficial (noninvasive) and 35 patients with advanced (invasive or metastatic) bladder carcinoma, and 30 patients with advanced upper urothelial carcinoma (renal pelvis and ureter) were measured by a one-step sandwich enzyme assay.
Results: Among the 53 patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma who underwent complete resection, the 1- and 3-year disease free survival rates of patients with elevated serum levels of either or both of the enzymes were 51% and 19%, respectively, whereas those of patients with normal serum levels of these enzymes were much higher, 86% and 79%, respectively (P < 0.005). In pT2N0M0 and pT3N0M0 patients who underwent complete resection, the recurrence rate in those with preoperative elevated serum levels of either or both of the enzymes was significantly higher than that in patients with normal levels (75% vs. 8%; P < 0.001). The 1- and 3-year disease free survival rates of pT2N0M0 and pT3N0M0 patients with elevated serum levels of either or both of the enzymes were 55% and 21%, respectively, which was significantly lower than that of patients with normal levels (92%; P < 0.001).
Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the elevation of serum levels of either MMP-2 or MMP-3 or both could be new predictors of recurrence in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma after complete resection.