Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 8 (5), 408-14

Lupus and the Central Nervous System

Affiliations
Review

Lupus and the Central Nervous System

S G West. Curr Opin Rheumatol.

Abstract

Neuropsychiatric symptoms are recognized to occur in a significant percentage of systemic lupus erythematosus patients and to be a leading cause of morbidity and morality in lupus. Recent findings regarding the clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus are reviewed. The study of neurocognitive deficits and psychosocial functioning in systemic lupus erythematosus patients continues to be an area of great research interest worldwide. Severe neuropsychiatric manifestations can be divided into diffuse, focal, and seizure presentations, which can each have a different etiopathogenesis. New techniques for magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission CT of the brain may improve the utility and sensitivity of these neuroradiographic tests. Certain combinations of serologic, cerebrospinal fluid, and neuroimaging tests appear to be most useful diagnostically when ordered based on the patient's neurologic presentation. The role of complement, cytokines, and endothelial cell activation in causing the vascular pathology observed in the brains of neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus patients is an area of promising research. Treatment remains empiric, but intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide and intrathecal administration of immunosuppressive medications are new approaches that have been used successfully to treat patients with severe and refractory symptoms.

Similar articles

  • Neuropsychiatric Lupus
    WJ McCune et al. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 14 (1), 149-67. PMID 3041486. - Review
    Neuropsychiatric abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus have been recognized for more than a century. Although the prognosis of lupus has improved, involvement of …
  • Neuropsychiatric Lupus
    SG West. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 20 (1), 129-58. PMID 8153397. - Review
    Neuropsychiatric disease occurs in up to two thirds of all systemic lupus erythematosus patients. At present, there is no accepted classification for the myriad of neurop …
  • [Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus]
    M Keren et al. Harefuah 120 (8), 446-50. PMID 1885100. - Case Reports
    Involvement of the central nervous system in systemic lupus erythematosus is frequent (50-66%). Its manifestations may be either neurological, psychiatric or both. The ps …
  • Cognitive Deficits in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    SD Denburg et al. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 19 (4), 815-31. PMID 8265824. - Review
    Several independent studies have now demonstrated the presence of significant cognitive impairment in SLE patients. Such impairment, whether it precedes or follows overt …
  • [Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Findings in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus]
    C Lund et al. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 117 (14), 2043-5. PMID 9235685. - Case Reports
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) frequently involves the central nervous system. The clinical presentation is highly variable and heterogeneous. The involvement of the …
See all similar articles

Cited by 10 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

MeSH terms

Feedback