Purpose: To determine efficacy and safety of latanoprost, a prostaglandin analog for glaucoma, during 1 year of treatment.
Methods: After baseline measurements, 0.005% latanoprost was topically applied once daily for 12 months in patients from Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and the United States who had elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Diagnoses included ocular hypertension, chronic open-angle glaucoma, exfoliation syndrome, and pigment dispersion syndrome. Treatment was masked for the first 6 months and open-label during the second 6 months.
Results: Of the 272 patients initially enrolled, withdrawals were due to inadequate IOP control (1%), increased iris pigmentation (5%), other ocular problems (3%), systemic medical problems (3%), and nonmedical reasons (14%). Latanoprost significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced diumal IOP from 25.3 +/- 3.0 mmHg (mean +/- standard deviation) at baseline to 17.4 +/- 2.7 mmHg (32% reduction) at 12 months in the 198 patients who completed 1 year of treatment. The IOP reduction was maintained at a consistent level throughout the 12 months without evidence of drift, and was not affected by sex, age, race, or eye color. Overall, latanoprost caused a possible or definite increase in iris pigmentation in 12% of the 272 patients, all of whom had multicolored irides at baseline. One half of these patients with increased pigmentation withdrew before completing 1 year of therapy. Visual field, optic disc cupping, visual acuity, refractive error, conjunctival hyperemia, aqueous flare, anterior chamber cellular response, lens examination, blood pressure, heart rate, blood tests, and urinalysis were not appreciably altered.
Conclusion: Latanoprost safely and effectively reduces IOP for 1 year in patients of diverse nationalities, providing further evidence for its usefulness in chronic glaucoma therapy.