The ParaSight-F test for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated for its accuracy and usefulness in predicting treatment outcome in 75 patients (70 males, 5 females) with acute uncomplicated malaria who attended a malaria clinic in Mae Sot, Tak province, on the Thai-Myanmar border. All patients were admitted to the clinic for 28 d to exclude reinfection. The test was performed using blood samples collected into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid from the patients on admission, and on days 1, 2, 7, and 14. The presence of microscopically detectable parasitaemia was used as the reference for sensitivity and specificity of the test. The reappearance of parasites on day 28 was used to determine the accuracy of predicting the outcome of artemether treatment on day 14. The sensitivity of the ParaSight-F test on admission, and on days 1, 2, 7, and 14, was 98.7%, 96.7%, 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively, with corresponding specificities of 50%, 24.2%, 47.1% and 72.9%. The sensitivity for predicting recrudescence by using the test on day 14 was 100%, with 97.7% specificity, and the sensitivity of predicting a sensitive response on day 14 was 97.7%, with 100% specificity. The test seems to permit more precise detection of treatment failure under 'field' conditions if used on day 14 after the start of treatment.