Among proglucagon-derived peptides, the truncated form of glucagon-like peptide-1, GLP-1(7-36)amide (tGLP-1), is known as the most likely physiological humoral incretin. To examine whether there exists any relationship between tGLP-1 levels in the portal vein and activities of the hepatic and pancreatic vagal system, changes of the impulse discharge rate in the hepatic afferent vagus and the pancreatic efferent vagus upon intraportal tGLP-1 injection were measured in situ in rats anesthetized with urethan and chloralose. First, a 1-min bolus tGLP-1 injection at a periphysiological dose of 0.2 pmol or a pharmacological dose of 4.0 pmol, but not the vehicle injection, significantly facilitated the hepatic vagal afferents for > 90 min, showing weaker facilitation at the 0.05 pmol dose. Notably, the injection of noninsulinotropic full-length GLP-1 failed to facilitate the afferents at the 4.0 or 40.0 pmol dose. Second, the intraportal tGLP-1 injections at the 0.05 and 0.2 pmol dose facilitated marginally and significantly the pancreatic vagal efferents in normal rats, respectively, but had no effect on the hepatic vagotomized rats, even at the 40.0 pmol dose. The present results indicate that an intraportal appearance of tGLP-1 is specifically recognized by the hepatic vagal nerve, and this recognition further augments the pancreatic vagal efferent activity in a reflex way, suggesting another nature of tGLP-1 as neuroincretin in the enteroinsular axis.