Hyperglycemia slows gastric emptying in normal individuals and patients with diabetes mellitus and may affect both somatic and visceral sensation. The effects of hyperglycemia on proximal gastric motility and sensation during intraduodenal infusion of a triglyceride emulsion were evaluated using a barostat in six normal subjects during euglycemia and hyperglycemia (approximately 15 mmol/l). Isobaric distension induced greater bag volumes during hyperglycemia compared with euglycemia at 3 (452 +/- 26 vs. 343 +/- 12 ml, P < 0.05) and 4 mmHg (600 +/- 55 vs. 497 +/- 50 ml, P < 0.05) above basal pressure. During isovolumetric distension, intrabag pressure was less during hyperglycemia at 500 (2.5 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.5 mmHg above basal pressure, P < 0.05) and 600 ml (3.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.5 mmHg above basal pressure, P < 0.05). Perception of nausea (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.05) was increased during hyperglycemia compared with euglycemia. We conclude that hyperglycemia 1) reduces proximal gastric tone during intraduodenal triglyceride infusion, an effect that may contribute to delayed gastric emptying, and 2) increases the intensity of nausea and fullness during intraduodenal triglyceride infusion and proximal gastric distension, indicative of an effect on visceral sensation.