CAR1, a TNFR-related protein, is a cellular receptor for cytopathic avian leukosis-sarcoma viruses and mediates apoptosis

Cell. 1996 Nov 29;87(5):845-55. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81992-3.


Viral envelope (Env)-receptor interactions have been implicated in the cell death associated with infection by subgroups B and D avian leukosis-sarcoma viruses (ALVs). A chicken protein, CAR1, was identified that permitted infection of mammalian cells by these viral subgroups. CAR1 bound to a viral Env fusion protein, comprising an ALV-B surface Env protein and the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, indicating that it is a specific viral receptor. CAR1 contains two extracellular cysteine-rich domains characteristic of the TNFR family and a cytoplasmic region strikingly similar to the death domain of TNFR1 and Fas, implicating this receptor in cell killing. Chicken embryo fibroblasts susceptible to ALV-B infection and transfected quail QT6 cells expressing CAR1 underwent apoptosis in response to the Env-Ig fusion protein, demonstrating that this cytopathic ALV receptor can mediate cell death.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 3T3 Cells / chemistry
  • 3T3 Cells / cytology
  • 3T3 Cells / virology
  • Alpharetrovirus / chemistry*
  • Alpharetrovirus / genetics
  • Alpharetrovirus / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / physiology*
  • Arginase / physiology*
  • Base Sequence
  • COS Cells / chemistry
  • COS Cells / cytology
  • COS Cells / virology
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA, Complementary / isolation & purification
  • Fungal Proteins / physiology*
  • Genes, Viral / physiology
  • Genome
  • Humans
  • Membrane Proteins / physiology*
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Binding / physiology
  • Quail
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / physiology
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid


  • DNA, Complementary
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Arginase