p300/CBP is a transcriptional adaptor that integrates signals from many sequence-specific activators via direct interactions. Various cellular and viral factors target p300/CBP to modulate transcription and/or cell cycle progression. One such factor, the cellular p300/CBP associated factor (PCAF), possesses intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity. Here, we demonstrate that p300/CBP is not only a transcriptional adaptor but also a histone acetyltransferase. p300/CBP represents a novel class of acetyltransferases in that it does not have the conserved motif found among various other acetyltransferases. p300/CBP acetylates all four core histones in nucleosomes. These observations suggest that p300/CBP acetylates nucleosomes in concert with PCAF.