In vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in 12 patients with intracranial tuberculomas with an aim of detecting the biochemical constituents of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a granuloma. One dimensional (1D) single pulse and spin-echo sequences and 2D correlative spectroscopy were used for the ex vivo study to confirm the resonances seen on in vivo study. Spectroscopic studies of the perchloric acid and lipid extract of granuloma and M. tuberculosis were performed to look for similarity of resonance. In vivo study showed the presence of lipids at 0.9, 1.3, 2.0, 2.8 ppm, and phosphoserine at 3.7 ppm. All these resonances were confirmed on ex vivo study. In addition, distinct resonances of serine and phenolic lipids were seen on ex vivo and in vitro study of tuberculous granuloma, which have not been observed in other intracranial tumors. Lipid extract of granuloma and M. tuberculosis showed phenolic lipids at 7.1 and 7.4 ppm, a constituent of the cell wall of the bacteria in a tuberculoma. It appears that it may be possible to finger print the biochemicals of the cell wall of M. tuberculosis in a tuberculous granuloma and thus may help in detection and diagnosis of such lesions.