Background and objectives: To predict incident human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 seroconversions among a cohort of gay and bisexual men based on recalled sexual behavior, drug use, partnership status, and an index of sexual adventurism/risk-seeking attitudes.
Study design: A nested case-control design was used in a retrospective study spanning a 9-year period.
Results: Sexual adventurism was an important predictor of HIV-1 infection. The partial risk ratio for our 100-point adventurism scale indicated a marginal rate of increase in seroconversion risk of 4% (odds ratio = 1.04; 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.06), with almost 79% of seroconverters scoring above the median on the index. As expected, partner status, drug use, and unprotected receptive anal (RA) intercourse were associated with seroconversion. However, multivariate results indicated that men using condoms consistently in RA sex were also at higher risk for infection (odds ratio = 2.68; 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 6.95) than men who abstained from RA intercourse.
Conclusions: Results are discussed with respect to their implications for HIV prevention intervention and research. Recommendations include the development of new approaches and the adaptation of existing intervention techniques that recognize and treat persons with strong risk-taking predispositions.