cDNAs for rat mu-calpain large subunit and the calpain small subunit were cloned and sequenced. The large subunit encodes 713 amino-acid residues, which includes one deletion compared to that of human. The overall similarity is 89% to human mu-type, which is slightly lower than those compared between other types of calpain large subunits of rat and human (93-94%). On the other hand, the small subunit showed high conservation, being 94.0% identical to that of human. With these sequences, primary structures of all rat calpain subunits that have been considered to exist were completely elucidated.