The epidemiology of community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in children during a one-year period (January through December 1993) was evaluated. A total of 6,859 clinical samples, each one representing a separate individual with suspected infection, were cultured. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 218 children with various infections occurring in the following order of frequency: chronic suppurative otitis media, 76.3%; appendicitis/peritonitis, 10.3%; osteomyelitis, 8.9%; skin or soft tissue infection, 6.3%; acute conjunctivitis, 3.0%; and urinary tract infection, 0.1%. A variety of O serogroups were identified: O1 (15.2%), O6 (14.7%), O11 (12.4%), O10 (11.5%), O3 (10.6%), O5 (5.1%), and O9 (4.6%). Other serogroups and nontypable strains were recovered at a frequency of 11.2% and 14.7%, respectively. Nontypable strains predominated in chronic otitis media (18.9%), while serogroups O1 (18.3%), O6 (17.5%), and O11 (17.5%) were recovered most frequently among the typable isolates. Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antipseudomonadal agents was extremely high. The rate of susceptibility to ceftazidime was 99.6%, to azlocillin 98.6%, to piperacillin 98.2%, to aztreonam 97.3%, to gentamicin and netilmicin 97.7%, and to ciprofloxacin 99.1%. All isolates were susceptible to tobramycin, imipenem, and amikacin. The results might suggest that community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in children can be treated successfully with any antipseudomonadal antibiotic.