Specimens of human cerebral neocortex were obtained during neurosurgical operations and studied by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, using antibodies to the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1 and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Many GluR1-positive pyramidal neurons and fewer GluR1-positive non-pyramidal neurons were present in the cortex. Non-pyramidal neurons were more heavily labelled for GluR1 than pyramidal neurons. Most GABAergic neurons were labelled for GluR1. The white matter was unstained, except for occasional labelled neurons. This pattern of GluR1 immunostaining is similar to that in rat cerebral cortex, but is different from that in the hippocampus and amygdala, where large numbers of pyramidal or projection neurons, but few non-pyramidal or GABAergic neurons, were labelled for GluR1.