Endocardial endothelial dysfunction and heart failure

J Card Fail. 1996 Dec;2(4 Suppl):S195-202. doi: 10.1016/s1071-9164(96)80077-7.


Like vascular endothelium, the EE plays a role in transendothelial transport, in coagulant and thrombotic processes, and in interactions with inflammatory cells. In addition, EE is involved in the modulation of cardiac performance of subjacent myocardium. EE dysfunction includes insufficient as well as excessive performance of any of its multiple functions. Dysfunction can progress from a disturbed modulation of myocardial performance and an imbalance in the release of growth factors to changes in EE cytoskeletal organization, with concomitant changes in transendothelial permeability, and in extreme cases, to loss of endothelial integrity and frank denudation. Structural and functional impairment of EE and of endocardial interstitial cells may be primary or secondary to the disease. Mechanical stress, various hormones and cytokines can initiate EE dysfunction. EE dysfunction may influence the development of cardiac failure in endo(myo)cardial fibrosis (Loeffler's endocarditis and carcinoid syndrome) and in dilated cardiomyopathy. Although Bouillaud, in 1836, was referring to endocarditis when stating: (quote: see text) his statement may presently find a much broader field of applicability in cardiology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Endocardium / physiology*
  • Endomyocardial Fibrosis / physiopathology
  • Endothelium / physiology
  • Free Radicals / toxicity
  • Heart Failure / physiopathology*


  • Free Radicals