Therapeutic approaches to anaerobic infections are changing. Debridement, drainage, and other surgical approaches remain extremely important. Resistance to antimicrobial agents currently used for treatment of anaerobic infections is increasing. However, promising new agents are being introduced. We review the current status of therapy for anaerobic infections and discuss the potential role of these new agents. We stress an empirical approach to therapy that is based on the usual infecting flora in various types of infections.