E1-deleted adenoviral vectors are efficient vectors for somatic cell gene therapy, but transgene expression is limited in part by a cytotoxic T cell response directed against virally transduced cells. Moreover, the development of a neutralizing antibody response limits secondary gene transfer with these vectors. Therapy with a depleting anti-CD4 antibody permits prolonged transgene expression in the lung and liver of mice. Furthermore, transient depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes blocks neutralizing antibody production and therefore allows repeat administration and expression of E1-deleted recombinant adenovirus. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a novel nondepleting anti-CD4 antibody (RIB 5/2) in a model of lung-directed gene therapy in outbred rats. Treatment with RIB 5/2 permitted prolonged reporter gene expression and reduced adenovirus-induced peribronchial and alveolar inflammation in the lung. Moreover administration of RIB 5/2 blocked the development of an anti-adenoviral neutralizing antibody response in the lung and permitted secondary administration and expression of a recombinant adenovirus. These data support the role of immunomodulation in prolonging in vivo transgene expression by recombinant adenovirus.