Hereditary hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is an autosomal dominant disease (OMIM 145001) that has recently been mapped to chromosomal region 1q21-q32 (HRPT2). Here we report two families with HPT-JT syndrome in which adult renal hamartomas or cystic kidney disease were prominent associated features, possibly representing a new phenotypic variant of the HPT-JT syndrome. In the first family, renal lesions were present in five out of six affected individuals, whereas HPT and JT were seen in four and two cases, respectively. In the second family, JT was found in three of the five affected individuals and two affected members also exhibited polycystic kidney disease. The possibility of the latter cosegregating as a separate autosomal dominant gene can not be ruled out. A sex-dependent penetrance of primary HPT, resulting in predominantly male-affected cases was evident in the two families. Twenty microsatellite markers in the HRPT2 region were typed, in addition to markers in the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 1 and 2 regions at 11q13 and 10q11. The disease in these two kindreds was linked to five markers in the 1q21-q32 region (logarithm-of-odds scores: 3.2-4.2), whereas linkage to the MEN1 and MEN2 regions was excluded. Meiotic recombinations detected in affected individuals placed the locus telomeric of D1S215, thus narrowing the HRPT2 region from > 60 to approximately 34 centimorgans. Loss of heterozygosity was studied in seven renal hamartomas from two affected individuals in the first family, as well as in a jaw tumor and a parathyroid tumor from the second family. All renal hamartomas showed loss of heterozygosity at the 1q21-q32 region. The losses invariably involved the wild type allele derived from the unaffected parent, suggesting the inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene in this region.