Induction of the CD11b gene during activation of the monocytic cell line U937 requires a novel nuclear factor MS-2

J Immunol. 1996 Dec 15;157(12):5597-605.


The differentiation of myeloid precursors into mature myelomonocytic cells is characterized by the induction of the gene encoding the beta2 integrin CD11b. The transcription factors Sp1 and PU.1 prime the CD11b promoter, but the nature of the factors responsible for its inducible expression are unknown. In addition to the CD11b gene, the homologous genes encoding CD11a and CD11c also exhibit inducible expression during myeloid differentiation. Therefore, we compared the nucleotide sequences of the CD11a, CD11b, and CD11c gene promoters to identify common elements that might contribute to inducible expression. This analysis identified one such element repeated four times within the CD11b promoter. Mutation of these elements indicated that two, MS-2beta and MS-2gamma, are critical to the induction of the CD11b gene during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line U937. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that MS-2beta and MS-2gamma interact with nuclear factors that are induced during U937 differentiation. These factors are detected at the time the CD11b promoter is activated. The molecular mass of these factors is approximately 28 kDa, and their DNA binding characteristics are indistinguishable from those of the novel nuclear factor MS-2. Taken together, our data indicate that MS-2 mediates induction of the CD11b gene as cells of the monocytic lineage mature. The presence of multiple potential binding sites for MS-2 in the promoter regions of a wide range of genes expressed in mature myeloid cells suggests this factor plays a general role in myeloid differentiation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Line
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Humans
  • Macrophage Activation
  • Macrophage-1 Antigen / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Molecular Weight
  • Monocytes / cytology
  • Monocytes / physiology*
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor / physiology
  • Transcription Factors / physiology*


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Macrophage-1 Antigen
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor
  • Transcription Factors