A radioimmunoassay was developed for insect tachykinin-related peptides with the use of an antiserum raised to the locust neuropeptide locustatachykinin I (LomTK I). Determination of tachykinin-related peptide was performed in different tissues of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae. The largest amounts of LomTK-like immunoreactivity (LomTK-LI) reside in the brain and in the midgut. Relatively large amounts were also found in the suboesophageal ganglion and throughout the ganglia of the ventral nerve cord, whereas smaller amounts of LomTK-LI were detected in the corpora cardiaca, foregut and hindgut. Extracts of unfused abdominal ganglia and midguts, respectively, were analysed by a combination of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, and radioimmunoassay for LomTK-LI. The extracts of abdominal ganglia and midguts both contain LomTK-LI material which separates in at least two major components. This LomTK-LI material had retention times corresponding approximately to those of synthetic LomTK I and II. Since the cellular source of LomTK-LI material in the foregut and hindgut was not known from earlier studies, we investigated these tissues by immunocytochemistry. We found that the LomTK-LI material associated with the foregut was in arborizing fibres in the oesophageal and gastric nerves and in the ingluvial ganglion. In the hindgut the muscle layer was innervated by immunoreactive fibres derived from cell bodies in the terminal ganglion. The amount of LomTK-LI material in other portions of the nervous system correlates well with previous immunocytochemical data. We conclude that L. maderae have two or more isoforms of tachykinin-related peptides in the nervous system and intestine and that these are present in various amounts in different parts of the central nervous system and intestine. The relative large amounts of LomTK-LI material in the suboesophageal ganglion, oesophageal nerve and associated ganglia and intestine indicate important roles of tachykinin-related peptides in feeding and digestion.