Fifty-six (5.8%) patients with partial epilepsy secondary to central nervous system (CNS) infection (meningitis = 20 and encephalitis = 36) were identified from 963 patients studied with prolonged video-EEG monitoring. Twenty-seven (48.2%) patients had unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (UMTLE), 9 (16.1%) had bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (BMTLE), and 20 (35.7%) had neocortical epilepsy (NE). Younger age at infection and prolonged latency between the time of infection and development of epilepsy were predictive factors for UMTLE. Predictors for BMTLE were late age of infection and short latency between infection and epilepsy development. Development of NE was associated with short latency between infection and epilepsy, and younger age at infection. When outcome after temporal lobectomy was compared between the UMTLE group and a control group with UMTLE without history of CNS infection, no statistically significant differences were found. Central nervous system infection may lead to epilepsy, which in many cases, is generated by a single portion of the brain. In such cases, epilepsy surgery should be considered, as in patients without history of CNS infection.