FGFR2 mutation in clinically nonclassifiable autosomal dominant craniosynostosis with pronounced phenotypic variation

Am J Med Genet. 1996 Dec 2;66(1):81-6. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19961202)66:1<81::AID-AJMG19>3.0.CO;2-M.


We describe a mutation in the FGFR2 gene in affected members of a large family with inherited autosomal dominant craniosynostosis. The mutation is a G1044A transition at codon 344 of exon B of the gene and results in abnormal splicing of the FGFR2 transcript. The phenotypic effect of the mutation varies greatly. It ranges from minor anomalies such as slight hypertelorism and maxillary hypoplasia to severe manifestations such as brachycephaly and dolichocephaly. The severe cases required surgery because of increased intracranial pressure. The patients cannot be assigned clinically to one of the known craniosynostotic syndromes with mutations in FGFR2, e.g., Crouzon, Pfeiffer, or Jackson-Weiss. This study demonstrates that FGFR2 mutations can result in a spectrum of craniofacial abnormalities even within one family. The known eponymic syndromes of Crouzon, Pfeiffer, or Jackson-Weiss only describe phenotypic extremes of this spectrum. Therefore, the clinical classification should be abandoned and replaced by a molecular one such as "FGFR-associated craniosynostosis syndromes."

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Craniosynostoses / genetics*
  • Female
  • Genes, Dominant*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation*
  • Pedigree
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics*
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / genetics*


  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor
  • FGFR2 protein, human
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2