Angelman syndrome (AS) is a relatively frequent disorder of psychomotor development caused by loss of function of a gene from chromosome 15q11-q13, a region subject to genomic imprinting. The AS gene(s) is exclusively expressed from the maternal chromosome. Several kinds of mutations have been found to cause AS. More than half of the cases exhibit a deletion of the maternal 15q11-q13 region. Recently, we and others described a new mutation type, the imprinting mutation, characterised by normal, biparental inheritance but aberrant methylation patterns of the entire chromosomal region. In AS, a paternal imprint is found on the maternal chromosome probably leading to functional inactivation of the AS gene(s). We have now compared the phenotype of 9 AS patients with imprinting mutation to that of nine age-matched ones with a maternally derived deletion. Both groups were evaluated for 19 common AS symptoms. All patients, independently of their molecular findings, showed classical AS symptoms such s mental retardation, delayed motor development, and absent speech. In contrast, for two signs, hypopigmentation and microcephaly, a different distribution among both groups was observed. Only one of nine AS patients with an imprinting mutation, but seven of nine in the deletion control group showed either symptom. Our results suggest that imprinting mutations, in contrast to deletions, cause only incomplete loss of gene function or that maternally derived deletions affect also genes not subject to genomic imprinting. We conclude that AS is caused by loss of function of a major gene that is imprinted but that there are also other genes that contribute to the phenotype when in hemizygous condition.