In this paper we examined the relationship between neighborhood poverty and three different types of child maltreatment; neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We explore both rates of reporting and rates of substantiated reports across low, moderate, and high poverty areas. We use 1990 Census data and Child Protective Services (CPS) data to study this relationship. We find that neighborhood poverty is positively associated with all three forms of child maltreatment, but to different degrees. Of the three types of child maltreatment, child neglect is most powerfully associated with neighborhood poverty status.