Subtype-selective induction of wild-type p53 and apoptosis, but not cell cycle arrest, by human somatostatin receptor 3

Mol Endocrinol. 1996 Dec;10(12):1688-96. doi: 10.1210/mend.10.12.8961277.


Somatostatin (SST) exerts direct antiproliferative effects in tumor cells, triggering either growth arrest or apoptosis. The cellular actions of SST are transduced through a family of five distinct somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR1-5). Whereas growth inhibition has been reported to follow stimulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase via SSTR2 or inhibition of Ca2+ channels via SSTR5 in heterologous expression systems, the subtype selectivity for signaling apoptosis has not been investigated. The tumor suppressor protein p53 and the protooncogene product c-Myc regulate cell cycle progression (growth factors present) or apoptosis (growth factors absent). The p53-induced G1 arrest requires induction of p21, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, whereas apoptosis requires induction of Bax. c-Myc is capable of abrogating p53-induced G1 arrest by interfering with the inhibitory action of p21 on cyclin-dependent kinases. We have, therefore, investigated the regulation of p53, p21, c-Myc, and Bax and cellular apoptosis in relation to cell cycle progression in CHO-K1 cells stably expressing individual human SSTR1-5. We demonstrate that apoptosis is signaled uniquely through human SSTR3 and is associated with dephosphorylation-dependent conformational change in wild-type (wt) p53 as well as induction of Bax. The induction of wt p53 occurs rapidly and precedes the onset of apoptosis. We show that the increase in wt p53 is not associated with the induction of p21 or c-Myc when octreotide-induced apoptosis becomes evident, suggesting that such apoptosis does not require G1 arrest and is not c-Myc dependent. These findings provide the first evidence for hormonal induction of wt p53-associated apoptosis via G protein-coupled receptor in a subtype-selective manner.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Apoptosis / physiology*
  • CHO Cells / drug effects
  • CHO Cells / metabolism
  • Cell Cycle / drug effects
  • Cell Cycle / physiology*
  • Cricetinae
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclins / drug effects
  • Cyclins / genetics
  • Cyclins / metabolism
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / drug effects
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Hormones
  • Humans
  • Octreotide / pharmacology
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / drug effects
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / drug effects
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / metabolism
  • Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics
  • Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / drug effects
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism*
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • BAX protein, human
  • CDKN1A protein, human
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclins
  • Hormones
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • Receptors, Somatostatin
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • somatostatin receptor 3
  • somatostatin receptor 5
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Octreotide