Booster vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus in man. Comparison of three different vaccine formulations--III

Vaccine. 1996 Sep;14(13):1265-72. doi: 10.1016/s0264-410x(96)00092-8.


Adverse reactions and antibody levels were compared following a booster vaccination of 177 Danish military recruits with a plain, an aluminium hydroxide (0.5 mg Al per human dose, HD) and a calcium phosphate (0.25 mg Ca per HD) adsorbed diphtheria-tetanus (D-T) vaccine. The calcium phosphate adsorbed vaccine was given in a HD of 3 Lf of D and T toxoids and proved to be of equal efficacy as the aluminium hydroxide adsorbed vaccine which was injected in a dose containing twice the antigen amount. The calcium phosphate vaccine caused fewer adverse reactions than the one adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide. The plain vaccine (6 Lf per HD of D and T toxoid) had the highest efficacy with a similar low occurrence of adverse reactions as the calcium phosphate adsorbed vaccine. Potency assays in mice were in accordance with these immunogenicity results in man if a two dose immunization schedule was followed, but not if the vaccines were compared after a single immunization as requested by the procedure for potency testing according to current WHO and European Pharmacopoeia requirements. Both of the adsorbed vaccines primed mice for specific IgE antibody formation. This could be detected after a second immunization with either of the adsorbed vaccines or with the plain D-T vaccine. Also in humans, immunization with the plain vaccine boosted specific IgE formation to a detectable level. This may be ascribed to adjuvant priming during the primary vaccination series some 20 years previously.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aluminum Hydroxide / administration & dosage
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / blood
  • Calcium Phosphates / administration & dosage
  • Diphtheria Toxoid / administration & dosage*
  • Diphtheria Toxoid / adverse effects
  • Diphtheria Toxoid / immunology
  • Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Humans
  • Immunization, Secondary*
  • Immunoglobulin E / blood
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Rabbits
  • Tetanus Toxoid / administration & dosage*
  • Tetanus Toxoid / adverse effects
  • Tetanus Toxoid / immunology
  • Vaccines, Combined / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Combined / adverse effects
  • Vaccines, Combined / immunology


  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Calcium Phosphates
  • Diphtheria Toxoid
  • Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine
  • Tetanus Toxoid
  • Vaccines, Combined
  • alpha-tricalcium phosphate
  • tetracalcium phosphate
  • Immunoglobulin E
  • Aluminum Hydroxide
  • calcium phosphate, monobasic, anhydrous
  • calcium phosphate
  • calcium phosphate, dibasic, anhydrous