Objectives: This study sought to determine whether diabetes mellitus, in the setting of thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction, affects 1) early infarct-related artery patency and reocclusion rates; and 2) global and regional ventricular function indexes. We also sought to assess whether angiographic or baseline clinical variables, or both, can account for the known excess mortality after myocardial infarction in the diabetic population.
Background: Mortality after acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes is approximately twice that of nondiabetic patients. It is uncertain whether this difference in mortality is due to a lower rate of successful thrombolysis, increased reocclusion after successful thrombolysis, greater ventricular injury or a more adverse angiographic or clinical profile in diabetic patients.
Methods: Patency rates and global and regional left ventricular function were determined in patients enrolled in the GUSTO-I Angiographic Trial. Thirty-day mortality differences between those with and without diabetes were compared.
Results: The diabetic cohort had a significantly higher proportion of female and elderly patients, and they were more often hypertensive, came to the hospital later and had more congestive heart failure and a higher number of previous myocardial infarctions and bypass surgery procedures. Ninety-minute patency (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] flow grade 3) rates in patients with and without diabetes were 40.3% and 37.6%, respectively (p = 0.7). Reocclusion rates were 9.2% vs. 5.3% (p = 0.17). Ejection fraction at 90 min after thrombolysis was similar in diabetic and nondiabetic patients ([mean +/- SEM] 6.10 +/- 1.6% vs. 60.1 +/- 0.7%, p = 0.7), as was regional ventricular function (number of abnormal chords: 19.1 +/- 2.0 vs. 17.5 +/- 0.8, p = 0.3; SD/chord: -2.3 +/- 0.2 vs. -2.4 +/- 0.1, p = 0.6). Diabetic patients had less compensatory hyperkinesia in the noninfarct zone (SD/ chord: 1.3 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.1, p < or = 0.01). No significant difference in ventricular function was noted at 5- to 7-day follow-up. The 30-day mortality rate was 11.3% in diabetic versus 5.9% in nondiabetic patients (p < or = 0.0001). After adjustment for clinical and angiographic variables, diabetes remained an independent determinant of 30-day mortality (p = 0.02).
Conclusions: Early (90-min) infarct-related artery patency as well as regional and global ventricular function do not differ between patients with and without diabetes after thrombolytic therapy, except for reduced compensatory hyperkinesia in the noninfarct zone among patients with diabetes. Diabetes remained an independent determinant of 30-day mortality after correction for clinical and angiographic variables.